A "strategic administration of my unemployment advantages": that is how Julie, a younger Parisian 29 years working within the audiovisual, describes the fraud she is about to commit. After resigning from her earlier job, she is now doing odd jobs. However on the finish of the yr, she intends to go away LinkedIn and the quilt letters to go mop in Latin America for 5 months. "I do know that for some folks it doesn’t appear ethical, however I believe I deserved it, I had a really troublesome time in my outdated job," she explains. Will not be she afraid of getting caught by the hounds of employment middle? "Probably not: certainly one of my pals left for a number of months in New York, and she or he didn’t get pinched." Julie is correct to not fear: a number of folks instructed us that they managed to mystify the general public physique. "I requested my mother and father, who have been in France, to replace me in order that we don’t discover my IP handle (the quantity that identifies every laptop related to the Web and that we will find, Ed). tells Fabien, who additionally benefited a number of years in the past from his standing as unemployed to go away to roam the roads of South America, whereas he was speculated to search for a job in logistics within the north of France.
How a lot are they precisely to free themselves, flip their thumbs or make the most of the very lax and beneficiant guidelines of our unemployment insurance coverage? Troublesome to say, as a result of there isn’t a examine itemizing all of the "profiteers" of Unédic. Of the 34 billion euros of allowances paid yearly, a big majority might be justified, and it will be ridiculous to cross all job seekers for fraudsters or slackers. However it will be simply as utopian to imagine that every one those that go to Level employment are paragons of advantage … This topic is nevertheless extremely flammable. On the one hand as a result of, not like social minima or tax evasion, it might have an effect on everybody, from the manager who advantages from a excessive allowance to make it candy to the particular person in want who doesn’t declare a restoration of exercise, by means of the corporate that makes use of Unédic to finance the "paid holidays" of its precarious workers. Alternatively as a result of, in our mentalities, this allowance is a due. "Job seekers imagine that, as they’ve labored and contributed, they now have the precise to take pleasure in just a little," says Charles Prats, former member of the DNLF (Nationwide Delegation to the struggle towards fraud).
An underrated variety of frauds
Let's begin with the massive guys: the best phenomenon to know is the pure fraud, which incorporates for instance the individuals exercising an expert exercise (like this inhabitant of Saint-Malo condemned final February for having obtained allowances whereas he was a communications advisor) or offering false paperwork. "There could also be specificities relying on the geographical areas: within the border areas, it’s common for jobseekers to not declare a job they occupy overseas", provides Sylvie Amblot-Aazzabi, president of the CFTC Employment. In line with the most recent figures, 16,400 fraud circumstances have been uncovered in 2018, for a complete of 206 million euros. This quantity could appear low (solely zero.5% of allowances paid) however it’s certainly underestimated.
First, as a result of it solely considerations damages of greater than six months and 10,000 euros, the remaining being accounted for within the "undue" (or "overpayments"), which additionally take note of errors of the Pole employment. Then, as a result of this sum clearly solely contains the detected frauds. "We should nonetheless acknowledge that controls are more and more efficient, particularly by means of cross-file with different administrations," stated Hervé Chapron, former Deputy Director Normal of the general public physique and creator of Employment middle, post-mortem of a shipwreck (editions of the Opportun). Information evaluation has additionally enabled Pôle emploi to extra successfully detect scams. However scammers are usually not the one ones to take Unédic for a money cow.
Some unemployed are usually not searching for a job
That is additionally the case for the unemployed who flip their thumbs when they’re required to search for work. At Pôle emploi, the topic is just a little taboo. "We don’t wish to speak concerning the topic of fraud in parallel, as a result of they’re unmotivated individuals who have to be accompanied," we have been formally instructed. However within the corridors of businesses, opinions are extra blended. "There are some who do probably not make any effort," blows a counselor Ile. Because the generalization of the management system of the job search in 2015, it’s nonetheless simpler to apprehend this phenomenon. In line with the most recent figures, printed in August 2018, eight% of individuals checked and compensated by the unemployment insurance coverage had made an inadequate variety of job searches on the finish of this process comprising a number of steps (evaluation of their file, response to a questionnaire , interview with a counselor). It could be needed so as to add a small a part of the 5% for which, in keeping with the official phrases, "a remobilisation is triggered" after sending a warning letter: the prospect of a radiation is commonly sufficient to place them again into the precise approach … Even when some schemers nonetheless handle to cross between the drops. "I made faux purposes and responses from employers, and so they left me alone," says Stéphane, Internet developer within the Paris area.
The drifts of the CDD of use and the standard rupture
To our fraudsters and indolent, add those that, with out being unlawful, reveal the generosity of our system. Within the first place, the "permittents" (these individuals who hold going backwards and forwards between unemployment and work) and particularly the businesses that make the most of them. This phenomenon, the expansion of which has been made attainable by the creation of the customary DDC, renewable to infinity, and the creation of guidelines favoring the lowered exercise of jobseekers, can certainly generally be- winner. "Employers can ship their workers to take their holidays at Pôle emploi and rehire them afterwards," says Bertrand Martinot, an economist specializing on this planet of labor. In sure particular circumstances, workers could even obtain a better indemnity than their earlier emoluments, due to a technique of calculation that favors break up exercise … The issue is that this "permittence" is pricey: greater than four billion euros a yr!
One other rule used quite a bit: the standard break. It permits workers to go away their jobs whereas receiving unemployment advantages (not like resignation) and corporations to separate from them with out concern of attainable prosecution. Consequently, the variety of these pleasant skilled divorces exploded (greater than 430,000 final yr) and plummets Unédic's accounts. However the palm of the privilege undoubtedly returns to the intermittent regime of the spectacle, far more beneficiant for many who profit from it than the widespread legislation, and which additionally arranges the businesses which make use of them, within the audio-visual or the leisure …
Will the reform that comes into impact put some order in all this? It ought to in any case reinforce the motivation to work, by means of the reform of the strategy of calculation of the allowance and the degressivity of the allowance for executives (in keeping with the figures of Pôle emploi, plus the quantity of the allowance is excessive, the longer you keep unemployed). On the company facet, the introduction of a bonus-malus on brief contracts and a tax on fixed-term contracts may result in much less abuse of the system. As for the non-job search, the technique of motion have already been bolstered final December. And so far as fraud is worried, Pôle Emploi assured us that its groups "will proceed to enhance".