Our unique listing of cities the place households can dwell has been constructed on a sequence of indicators and knowledge. Uncover our detailed methodology.
(The prize listing is revealed in Figaro Journal this weekend, and tomorrow morning on www.lefigaro.fr)
To ascertain our listing of cities the place to settle with the household, we chosen French cities with greater than 50,000 inhabitants, excluding abroad territories and suburbs. The groups of Figaro outlined a “suburban metropolis” as a metropolis that types a part of an city unit with out giving its identify to that city unit, additionally identified by a bigger metropolis. We in contrast these cities and edited our listing of leads to two classes: cities with 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants and cities with greater than 100,000 inhabitants.
We’ve subjected these cities to a battery of indicators in 9 main classes of equal significance: Demography, Employment, Training, Tradition and Leisure, Residing and Security, Local weather and Atmosphere, Actual Property, Transport and Well being. For every of those classes, we outlined three to four standards primarily based on a set of knowledge from official sources, which we famous every day out of 20 after which weighted. The result’s a normal common out of 20. Until in any other case indicated, the perimeter is the “commune” throughout the which means of the INSEE.
In growing our notes, we utilized the next guidelines:
-Respect for the proportionality of the values (20 for the utmost worth of the sequence, 10 for the minimal worth and a proportional notation for the opposite values).
-Exclusions from the acute values of the ranking scale when their deviation from the imply was too removed from the usual deviation and that this might distort the ranking.
-Non-linear ranking scale when biases associated to the scale of cities had been too massive. Two methods had been used: one by making use of a logarithm to the ranking scale, one other by a mathematical adjustment to the variety of inhabitants when the latter was used to calculate ratios, within the denominator.
-Punctual correction on the sequence throughout threshold results or dropouts linked to biases recognized by the editorial employees. Every modification made has repercussions on the entire distribution for the applying of a diminished regular centered legislation.
Checklist, composition and design of indicators, by class
Youth index (coef. 2): 2016 youth index, i.e. the variety of younger individuals below the age of 20 for these with out individuals aged 60 and over, within the metropolis. Supply: Territorial Observatory, based on INSEE.
Evolution of demography (coef. 1): Charge of change within the variety of inhabitants within the metropolis's inhabitants over 5 years. Supply: INSEE (Inhabitants census 2016, 2011)
Share of households whose fundamental household is made up of a pair with baby (ren) (share 1): Share of households whose fundamental household is made up of a pair with baby (ren) in 2016 on all households . For the INSEE, a household is the a part of a family comprising at the very least two individuals and made up both of a pair residing throughout the family, with if obligatory his or her baby (ren) belonging to the identical family; both an grownup together with his or her baby (ren) belonging to the identical family (single-parent household). Supply: INSEE (2016 Inhabitants Census)
Evolution of the variety of jobs over 5 years (coef. 2): Evolution of the variety of jobs on the office between 2016 and 2011, in absolute worth. Sources: INSEE (Inhabitants census 2016, 2011)
Unemployment fee (coef. 1): Common annual unemployment fee in 2018 on the stage of the employment space to which the municipality is hooked up. Supply: INSEE (Localized unemployment charges, 2018 employment survey)
Common month-to-month web wage (coef. 1): Common month-to-month web wage 2015. Supply: INSEE (Common hourly web wage by socio-professional class, gender and age in 2015, DADS, worker file at place of residence)
Leads to bac (coef. 1): Success fee and fee of point out in bac in 2018 in excessive faculties within the metropolis depending on the Ministry of Nationwide Training. Supply: Ministry of Nationwide Training – DEPP – 2019 IVAL file
Leads to the patent (coef. 1): Success fee and fee of point out within the patent in 2018 within the faculties of the town depending on the Ministry of Nationwide Training. Supply: Ministry of Nationwide Training – DEPP – Ocean Data System
Tools in faculties (coef. 1): The index “Tools in faculties” relies on the quantity of institutions and coaching programs in major, secondary and better schooling helpful to households, diminished to the entire inhabitants of the town. Given the good disparity because of the distinction in dimension of the categorised cities, a mathematical adjustment on the inhabitants was utilized. To create this indicator, we added the next gear, making use of for every a weighting similar to the shortage of apparatus on the stage of the entire of the French territory, with a bonus for the institutions having a canteen: Nursery faculty , Elementary faculty, Faculty, Basic and / or technological highschool, Basic and / or technological highschool with prepa grandes écoles, Vocational highschool, Part Technicien Supérieur – Classe Prépa Grandes Écoles. Sources: INSEE (2018 everlasting gear base).
Share of scholars enrolled within the non-public sector (coef. 1): Share of scholars enrolled within the non-public sector through the 2017-2018 faculty 12 months on the enrollment of nursery, elementary, center and excessive faculties. Supply: Ministry of Nationwide Training through Territory Observer
Tradition and leisure
Cultural services (coef. 1): The “Tradition” index relies on the quantity of services and main cultural occasions helpful to households, diminished to the entire inhabitants of the town (except in any other case indicated, famous “in VA” for a taken into consideration in absolute worth of the merchandise). Given the good disparity because of the distinction in dimension of the categorised cities, a mathematical adjustment on the inhabitants was utilized. To create this indicator, we added the next parts, making use of for every a weighting similar to the rarity of the gear on the stage of the entire of the French territory: Conservatory, exceptional Backyard (VA), Nationwide Monument (VA), Unesco World Heritage (VA), Opera, Nationwide Opera within the Area, Present Music Stage, Different lyric institution, Lyric Theater of Nationwide Curiosity, Everlasting orchestra, Nationwide stage, Agreed stage, Nationwide Middle for Musical Creation, Zenith and Live performance Corridor, Nationwide Theater, Metropolis Theater, Personal Theater, Museum of France, Pageant, Library. For museums, we utilized a weighting based on attendance (final identified attendance in 2009 to 2017). For the opposite efficiency halls, we utilized a weighting based on capability. Sources: Ministry of Tradition (Municipal statistical base of cultural services, Checklist and site of museums in France, Panorama of festivals), Wikipedia and official websites (Operas, live performance halls).
Cinema attendance (coef. 1): Variety of movies seen in 2018 per inhabitant of the city unit on which the town depends upon the territory of the city unit. Supply: CNC.
Sports activities and leisure services (coef. 1): The “Sports activities and leisure services” index relies on the quantity of sports activities and leisure services helpful to households in comparison with the entire inhabitants of the town. Given the good disparity because of the distinction in dimension of the categorised cities, a mathematical adjustment on the inhabitants was utilized. To create this indicator, we added the next parts, making use of for every a weighting similar to the rarity of the gear on the stage of the entire of the French territory: Swimming pool – variety of swimming swimming pools, sport and / or enjoyable, Tennis – variety of courts, Equestrian heart – variety of careers and rides, Athletics – variety of follow areas, Sports activities / well being course – variety of programs, Ice sports activities – variety of follow areas, Plates and courts out of doors video games – variety of follow areas, Specialised rooms – variety of follow areas, Giant playgrounds – variety of fields, Preventing rooms – variety of follow areas, Non-specialized rooms, Curler-Skate-Bike bicross or freestyle – variety of pistes, Health rooms – variety of follow areas, Multisport rooms (gymnasium) – variety of follow areas. Sources: INSEE (2018 everlasting gear base).
Proximity of leisure (coef. 1): Proximity of leisure helpful for households (seashores, ski resorts, golf programs). Various factors has been allotted for every merchandise based on the next guidelines: variety of public seashores within the metropolis, or distance to the closest seaside to the town. Ski: distance to the closest ski resort with at the very least 20 slopes and 20 cm of common snowfall on the backside of the slopes over the past three of the final 5 years, and whose minimal altitude on the prime of the slopes is 1000 meters (Exception: for the city of Ajaccio, we have now chosen Ghisoni station). Golf: Distance to the closest golf course (programs referenced 9 and 18 holes). Sources: Plages.television for the gap and the variety of seashores, Viamichelin.fr for the gap to ski resorts and golf programs, France-Montagnes.com, Travelski.com and Skiinfo.fr for snow protection.
Residing surroundings and safety
Business gear and providers to people (coef. 1): The “Presence of outlets and providers” index relies on the quantity of outlets and repair firms helpful to households, diminished to the inhabitants of the town. Given the good disparity because of the distinction in dimension of the categorised cities, a mathematical adjustment on the inhabitants was utilized. To create this indicator, we added the next gear, making use of for every a weighting similar to the rarity of the gear on the stage of the entire of the French territory: Hypermarket, Grocery store, Giant DIY space, Grocery store, Grocery, Bakery , Meat store, Frozen merchandise, Fishmonger, Bookstore Newspaper stationery, Clothes retailer, House furnishings retailer, Shoe retailer, House equipment and audio-video gear retailer, Furnishings retailer, Sporting items retailer and leisure, Ironmongery store DIY, Perfumery – Cosmetics, Watches, Jewellery, Florist – Backyard heart – Pet store, Optical retailer, Fuel station, Police, Job heart, Home of justice and legislation, Banks and financial savings banks, Posts, Auto restore and technical management, Driving faculty, Plumber – roofer – heating engineer, Electrician, Hairdresser, Veterinarian, Restaurant rant – Quick meals, Dry cleansing – Laundromat, Magnificence parlor – Nail salon. Sources: INSEE (2018 everlasting gear base).
Safety (coef. 1): The “Safety” index relies on the quantity of crimes and offenses over time 2018, 2017 and 2016 which will negatively impression the lives of households within the space of jurisdiction (police or gendarmerie) of which the town, diminished to the inhabitants of the realm of competence. To create this indicator, we added the next crimes and misdemeanors, making use of for every a weighting similar to the rarity of the crime or misdemeanors all through France: Homicides and tried homicides, Assault and battery, Robberies and burglaries, Thefts and stolen items, Thefts of autos, Intercourse crimes, Medication and narcotic medicine, Fires and Vandalism, Injury to animals and the surroundings, Falsifications of technique of cost and scams. Supply: Ministry of the Inside (Crimes and offenses recorded by the gendarmerie and police providers since 2012).
Out there earnings (coef. 1): Median way of life (€) 2016 for the town. Lifestyle corresponds to family disposable earnings divided by the variety of consumption models, based on the definition of INSEE. Supply: INSEE (Family earnings and poverty in 2016 – Localized social and monetary file system (Filosofi))
Digital metropolis (coef. 1): The “Digital metropolis” index is made up of 4g cell protection and entry to very excessive pace on the territory of the municipality. To create this indicator, we famous the share of the realm lined in 4G by at the very least two cell operators, and the share of eligible premises – all applied sciences mixed – at a most obtain pace higher than 30 Mb / s. Supply : Very Excessive Pace France Observatory (Q2 2017 Statistics) and ARCEP (A part of the realm lined in 4G by at the very least two operators – 2019)
Local weather and surroundings
Local weather Index (coef. 2): The “local weather” index relies on the agglomeration of a number of parts measuring the standard of the local weather of every metropolis for a household. We used the common period of sunshine per 12 months over the interval 1991-2010, the common quantity of precipitation per 12 months over the interval 1981-2010 (negatively famous) and the variety of days when the utmost temperature exceeded 33 ° over l '' calendar 12 months 2019 (rated negatively). Sources: meteofrance.com (for local weather standards, knowledge from the closest climate station in every metropolis).
Air pollution (coef. 1): Variety of days when the “ATMO” index (air high quality) was higher than 6 (6 = poor) over the 2016-2018 interval. Supply: INERIS – Nationwide Institute for the Industrial Atmosphere and Dangers.
Share of non-artificial and inexperienced areas (coef. 1): Share of non-artificial areas (excluding inside marshes, peat bogs, burnt areas and glaciers) and concrete inexperienced areas over the complete space of the municipality. Supply: Ministry of Sustainable Growth – CORINE Land Cowl (CLC)
Buy worth per m² (coef. 1): Median buy worth per m² of (previous) flats and homes bought within the metropolis between June 1, 2018 and Might 31, 2019. The decrease the value, the extra we contemplate as easy entry to buy, and the extra the town is valued. For Paris, the worth displayed is the common of the costs underlying the Notaries – INSEE indices revealed at every convention. Sources: For cities within the Paris area, Notaries of Higher Paris (ADSN-BIEN database). For cities exterior the Paris area, Notary of France (PERVAL database)
Rental costs per m² (coef. 1): Rental costs per m² in 2018. The decrease the value, the extra we contemplate the set up as easy, the extra the town is valued. Supply: CLAMEUR database (2018 market hire stage (in € / m²))
Accessible rental area for a household (coef. 1): Accessible rental floor (in m²) for a household made up of an lively couple within the metropolis. To calculate this knowledge, we in contrast the common salaries of CPIS within the metropolis (month-to-month salaries INSEE 2015, adjusted for inflation) and the common rents noticed within the metropolis for a pair, contemplating that the utmost allotted to housing represented a 3rd compensation. Sources: Common rents within the metropolis: Supply: Base Clameur; Salaries within the metropolis: INSEE (Common hourly web wage by socio-professional class, gender and age in 2015, DADS, worker file at place of residence).
Share of properties with three or extra rooms within the municipality (coef. 1): Share of housing (flats and homes) with three or extra rooms within the municipality in 2015. Sources: INSEE – Housing, people, exercise, faculty mobility and migration, residential migration in 2015 – Inhabitants census – Element file
Density of the city community (coef. 2): Variety of journeys per inhabitant served within the native city transport community. Measures the standard of the city public transport community. Sources: CEREMA (variety of journeys per inhabitant served), and websites of city transport operators.
Value of public transport (coef. 1): Value of public transport for a household composed of a pair with two kids for normal journeys by public transport by subscription for one 12 months, after discount relevant to age or to standing. We’ve added the value of two annual grownup subscriptions, the value of a kid below 18 for the 12 months, and the value of a pupil (or below 25). Some cities get the utmost rating due to free transportation. We didn’t consider the idea of the transport prices by the employers or the native administrations. Supply: web sites of the municipality's public transport operators.
Share of home-work journeys by public transport (coef. 1): Share of home-work journeys by public transport in 2016. Sources: Territory observer, based on Insee, RP 2006-2011-2016
Well being entry indicator (coef. 2): 2016 potential localized accessibility indicator (LPA) to normal practitioners within the municipality. Signifies the variety of consultations accessible per inhabitant of the municipality. Supply: DREES
Distance from the closest CHU / CHR (coef. 1): Minimal distance in kilometers from the closest CHU or CHR from the city heart of the municipality recorded on the viamichelin web site. For the cities internet hosting a CHU or CHR within the commune, we retained the worth zero km. Sources: Wikipedia (Checklist of college hospitals in France) and viamichelin.fr.
Medical and social gear (coef. 1): The index “Presence of social and medical gear” represents the quantity of social and medical gear helpful to households, diminished to the inhabitants of the town. Given the good disparity because of the distinction in dimension of the categorised cities, a mathematical adjustment on the inhabitants was utilized. To create this indicator, we added the next gear, making use of for every a weighting similar to the rarity of the gear on the stage of the entire of the French territory: Crèche, Basic practitioner, Specialist in cardiology, Specialist in venere dermatology, Specialist in gynecology, Specialist in hepatology gastroenterology, Specialist in psychiatry, Specialist in ophthalmology, Specialist in otolaryngology, Specialist in pediatrics; Specialist in diagnostic and medical imaging, Dental surgeon, Midwife, Nurse, Physiotherapist, Speech therapist, Dietitian, Psychologist, Quick-stay healthcare facility, Medium-stay healthcare facility, Lengthy-stay healthcare facility, Most cancers heart, Emergencies, Maternity heart of well being, Pharmacy, Laboratory of medical analyzes and biology, Ambulance. Supply: INSEE (2018 everlasting gear base).