Against February 6 – 2020
The anti-pension reform motion has sparked evaluation because it continues. It's a superb signal! This textual content started at a time when the media had been bent on denouncing "radicalization" and "reflux"; however, three days later, the Council of State questions the validity of the federal government's "pre-impact" research. Suffice to say that we should be crucial of the usage of the idea of "failure" about it (1), even when it displays an understanding of its first part.
We shouldn’t be happy with the reference to different earlier actions: there are cycles of mobilization. An actual failure, overwhelming for the longer term, would have been three small (or ‘nice’)" Days "of stress, adopted by false concessions, and the relay of political forces attempting to make" real looking "counterproposals as a way to play their position in the course of the elections. That is the trail to failure, repeated for greater than twenty years, 1995, 2003, 2010 … Shocked for a lot of, this "technique" is defeated in a number of methods.
A shocking shock…
The purpose of affirmation of this mobilization, which rejects all present authorities coverage and on the similar time all that has been inherited since Nicolas Sarkozy (2007-2012), doesn’t come from an intersyndicale which might have ready it from the origin. It took the choice to name a strike by the RATP unions, and all of the others clung to it. Therefore the impression that the RATP strike, joined by the railway employees (SNCF), had the decisive position. We now measure that the RATP strikers can adapt their ways over time, – "till withdrawal!" -; little question additionally the outline from the day earlier than yesterday (1995) in regards to the "proxy strike", which was a journalistic picture reasonably than a concrete evaluation, needs to be deserted.
How one can clarify that it was vital to attend for the RATP day of December 5, 2019, adopted by such a growth in mobilization? Allow us to attempt a speculation: a really massive a part of activists, pretty demoralized, thought that this Macron venture needs to be fought. Nonetheless, the political organizations didn’t say a lot and the union leaders confirmed their worry of a mobilization which might be one other failure; the query appeared to be posed by way of "the time it might take, patiently, to rebuild a capability for collective motion …". With, by itself path, mobilization in well being … Nonetheless, the mobilizations that had been getting in circles between robust dissatisfaction and worry that their struggles can be overwhelmed upfront, perceived the scope of such a motion in transport , as a assure of effectivity. If we should watch out for the concept that thousands and thousands of men and women had been "weapons to the foot" to do battle with Macron and his world, we should nonetheless notice the energy of this collective motion which has handed the vacation season even foiling the division makes an attempt hypocritically amplified by Laurent Berger (2), who nonetheless dared to "name a truce" for a strike to which he didn’t name. To put a benchmark, allow us to emphasize that the category consciousness of "common folks" is political and we have now a hanging illustration of this. Within the present political and social doldrums, opinion polls have proven for years that at the least 60% of the inhabitants (in France and past) judges that capitalism is incapable of fixing present issues. And considerably as many additionally say that they have no idea what options can be attainable. That is the results of an absence of political dialogue placing the continuation of struggles in perspective on the time of the Fall of the Wall, adopted by the collapse of the previous USSR. Was it a "bureaucratically degenerated employees state" that the employees disowned in favor of the rules of freedom and equality within the Western world? Or was it a bureaucratic dictatorship whose ruling strata had been within the state equipment of "Asian despotisms", in accordance with the Marxist evaluation of Georg Lukacs earlier than 1968 (three)? This relative "aphasia" of the political, socialist, communist or radical left forces doesn’t assist to have an open dialogue and the multiplication of small teams holding on to a particularity of concept performs a task of amplifying the political hunch.
This background weighs closely on the militant strata, regardless of their want to withstand the insurance policies of capitalism right this moment. We can’t ignore this actuality which makes the scenario unstable, between the rejection of the evils of neoliberalism and the silence of the political forces on important questions. The ecological state of the world is "barbarism", progressing earlier than our eyes. It is sufficient to see the pictures of Australia and the semi-continent of plastic waste on the Atlantic, the return of the dangers of nuclear battle, lots of of thousands and thousands of individuals "in migration", refusals of the correct of ladies to have entry to their our bodies: this technique destroys and there’s no political voice that carries to say the equal of "socialism or barbarism", up to date after the 20th century.
The questioning of the rules of social equality, on which we believed our continuity and our house of relative safety, has been manifested for years. It can’t be mentioned that "consciousness" was essential to reject the venture, even when slyly the world of Macron had deliberate to attract argument from the inequalities and injustices of the actually current pensions.
Even earlier than December 5, the day of demonstration had penalties introduced, a large assist of 70 to 80% of the inhabitants, distrustful, having no optimistic concept of the initiatives of "reform". It took a couple of days for the local weather to vary; a further clue identifies a concrete evaluation: the militant weak spot allowed the referendum towards the privatization of ADP (Paris Airports) to advance at a really sluggish tempo. And these are the identical militant forces that enter into mass motion! At some point, "all collectively" did two issues: confirm that the dissatisfaction expressed on inter-individual trade networks was actually seen. After the defeats of latest years and with the instance of the Yellow Vests, it was vital that crystallize within the militant ranks an impression of with the ability to win, to power the federal government to provide ensures or withdraw its venture. The demoralization was robust, and right here it tends to vanish. Macron was severely mistaken on this level, believing that class consciousness was progressively diminished: listening an excessive amount of to counselors ate up the ideas of the assume tank Terra Nova (for these on the left!) Or advisers from the nice Davos, Financial institution-Insurance coverage… He ended up projecting his success from an analytical error.
Word how severely the federal government's selections for public dialogue should not addressed to those that oppose it, as if the forceful passage towards the Labor Code of the regulation "work and shut up" (also called Pénicaud regulation , Minister of Labor, promulgated in September 2017), then the reform of the SNCF, had been in a forgotten and digested previous. There are flaws, as we all know, within the coaching of enarques … Such an oversight, on their half, by the 75 to 80% who supported the demonstrations of 2016 and 2017; a slender judgment on the weak politicization of the Yellow Vests… After two years of soothing conferences with an agent of the correct (four), Minister of Chirac then of Raffarin, who appeared as reassuring as an insurance coverage agent, and that no person had unmasked as serving "funding funds", a French time period for "pension funds" with out seeming to, the federal government was reassured and assured (sic!) …
Such a blunder of energy offers technique to a query: did the federal government understand that the category consciousness of precarious folks like wage earners. Was it by no means on the stage of the depressing outcomes that the left political organizations had obtained within the Europeans (at most 13% of the voters with six lists together with that of Jadot (5))? That anger was mobilizable. And, to higher perceive, we see, the leaders of the political forces of the left additionally didn’t perceive that they needed to begin an actual public debate on the way forward for pensions as a way to protect by correcting a system stable however with massive defects.
Nonetheless, the wrestle of the Yellow Vests had marked the spirits among the many staff of the RATP, and gave the concept that it was attainable to not anticipate "the institutional deadlines" to battle it and make the federal government again down. Via their wrestle, in the course of the months of 2018-2019, the tenacity of the Yellow Vests had demonstrated that there was a technique to be heard by collective motion. Following of their footsteps was beginning to transcend the query of solidarity in precept. Then, the pitiful revelation of the hyperlinks between the Commissioner Jean-Paul Delevoye and the executives of the Insurance coverage got here to display that "the discussions" had taken place for 2 years underneath the management of the enemies of Social Safety. On the time that the issues within the venture ensures fueled public dialogue, this "revelation" – what known as battle of curiosity to not say steady relations of corruption – highlighted what energy ought to serve this venture. Allow us to recall, soberly, that Emmanuel Macron, in his Revolution (6), expressed the chance supplied to everybody to develop into an entrepreneur, to free themselves from constraints, by talking out towards regulated professions and middleman our bodies.
Roots develop into seen
One of many axes of the “Macronian” venture is definitely to rigorously reshape the contours of the lessons. One among his zealous supporters additionally confused this situation (7). If there’s nonetheless equality, "she modified signal: from social and protecting, she grew to become liberal and emancipatory"(P. 53). Illustration of the tribute paid by these managers of "governance", he invitations the CFDT to push its improvement additional, "that it lastly turns into the animation of the administration of the variety of particular person expectations". It ought to "recompose social relations round the one non-public particular person (…): it's time to maneuver from social equality to liberal equality".
One other widespread thread
These hypocritical speeches, which had aroused the fad of the Yellow Vests, give a really political logic to the cycle of struggles which ended up manifesting, and partly explains the present motion towards pension reform.
We thus discover, thus, mobilizations since these with union base of 2016 and 2017, severely repressed with the strategies flourished towards the Yellow Vests; that they had been broadly supported however despised, or uncared for, by the political apparatuses anxious to show the militant forces in the direction of their marketing campaign (s) for the electoral time period of the presidential election (April-Could 2017).
After the political failures, the Yellow Vests motion performed a task in breaking the chain of domination with which President Macron wished to legitimize himself: he needed to give in a bit of, open the "Nice Debate", however did a lot repression that its legitimacy is used up. A number of months of motion had this impact, because the folks continued to precise their sympathy for the favored calls for regardless of police violence and injustices by the judiciary. Justice and respect, equality and democracy: the nice political referents had been now not on Macron's aspect and his world lengthy earlier than the event of the motion for the correct to retirement. We should due to this fact settle for to see that this motion will not be being performed out, for the second, in rapidity, however by way of contradictions and an extension of the fields within the wrestle. A backside line is fashioned and might have the forces and the technique which overwhelm the Elyos calculations. As a substitute of hurried, repetitive slogans from the ways of "avant-garde" teams calling instantly for a nationwide demonstration in Paris, actions, partial successes reminiscent of that of the firefighters, the questioning of deputies, all the things that makes the masks “fall” contributes to consolidating the motion and rising the isolation of Energy.
There’s thus a uncommon reality in social struggles: a consolidation of actions to "resist", say no, is accompanied by progress in understanding the problems. Thus, as a substitute of suggesting a easy assault on the buying energy and the rights of the poorest folks, the actual targets seem and it’s the destruction of social rights making it attainable to withstand the globalized world order. Paperwork started to flow into, which specified the political venture to withstand and destroy. Alain Supiot does this with the highlighting of a textual content from the World Financial institution (eight), which since 1994 has proposed a pension system mannequin, a recipe that appears to be relevant to each creating nations and 'to industrialized nations. The institution of three-element pension programs relies on a primary, which has a minimal redistributive perform and helps the retirement pensions of the poorest folks, financed by social contributions or by tax. Then comes a second flooring, obligatory, particular person or skilled, financed actually by particular person capitalizations (the venture by "factors" acquired by every is an illustration of this). It’s managed in accordance with actuarial standards; it forces all people to save lots of to pay for his or her future retirement, however doesn’t redistribute and makes the worth of the "level" rely on the applicable time, relying on the worldwide context, on the state of "enterprise". Based on the World Financial institution, this second obligatory pillar should be sufficiently restricted to permit the enlargement of a 3rd, non-public and non-compulsory, primarily based on voluntary financial savings, benefiting from tax benefits and which ought to enable people to decide on the place and methods to make investments. their earnings all through their lives. Listed here are the "first ropes" (greeted by Macron) with the means to position their earnings all through their lives, different ranges of therapy in corporations (private and non-private), with tax benefits …
The pension reform goals to take a decisive step within the pyramid reclassification of sophistication fractions among the many strata who dwell by the sale of their labor energy, acknowledged and paid, variously assured … This illustrates the "philosophy" of the President: "Now could be the time to maneuver from social equality to liberal equality".
In opposition to this venture, allow us to do what is important in order that the calls for of a RIC (Referendum of residents' initiative) should not "forgotten" on the pretext that this motion was too weak to be heard. A Citizen Initiative Referendum course of may end up in the preparation of a referendum: an exercise self-organized regionally by Yellow Vests, unions, associations, all activists and political organizations who wish to know what they’re saying " no ”and to what they’ll say“ sure ”. Even throughout native mobilization actions … On these circumstances, as a substitute of being a plebiscite within the palms of the ruling class, a referendum may very well be an actual expression that brings collectively the overwhelming majority of the typical particular person.
In direction of joint motion, instructing pensions
On the youth aspect, the political assaults are on a comparable scale. To make younger folks extra depending on these mercantile calculations underneath the guise of "modernity", the need of Blanquer (9) (with Macron) is to attain what Sarkozy had introduced: to complete with the standing of lecturers of Nationwide Schooling, reconcile them to non-public contracts. Of their eyes, the correct to free research, which has develop into one of many traits of younger folks, should be diminished as a lot as attainable. From the "steady bac" the objective is to insure sufficient college students and households for a bigger a part of younger folks to show to pre-hiring initiatives with bosses, who can even take cost, for some, extra specialised coaching. Dependence for the longer term, which these gents of "Governance" name "flexibility".
For universities – whereas the SNESUP (Nationwide Union for Greater Schooling), the bulk union, is asking 6,000 jobs for ten years to make up for good coaching and analysis circumstances – the federal government has ready a Programming Regulation which supplies that a number of the lecturers will probably be in a "standing of excellence" with "contracts" renewable by "requires tenders", exempting them from pupil supervision duties … A program to scale back the correct to check besides "quick" and pre-hires. Extra plasticity with "improvements" they are saying, and actually makes analysis intently topic to the desires of the administration of public or non-public corporations (10).
Clearly, this may increasingly appear removed from the questions of retirement! However younger individuals are already afraid of not being entitled to an actual retirement. And having to make your self completely out there. We should additionally observe this regression dictated by pension funds and governments at a time when technical developments might make it attainable to work infinitely much less time (11), with the correct to coach and resume research throughout working life…
To simplify, it’s attainable to say: neoliberalism, at present, pushes governments to suppress or diminish the freedoms which fashioned a framework of safety of life. These resulted from the part throughout which the category struggles and the concessions to which they introduced the bourgeoisie had optimistic results …
All in all, the correct to free schooling and the correct to dwell a wholesome retirement are each attacked. And so it’s not solely a query right here of a fascinating "convergence of struggles": it’s a query of taking the means to place a political venture in examine.
Think about that every one employees and younger folks, having understood that the pension regulation should be refused in terms of the vote of the Meeting, within the spring, might enable a mobilization on the peak of the political disaster To impress. For instance, in entrance of the prefectures and the seats of deputies of the varied rights, large rallies, by division, are held on the eve of this vote and paralyze the nation whereas the Parliament claims to resolve. This may be achieved if there are native locations of debate for the motion, in reference to the nice days of motion and the animation of the strike funds. “Withdrawal of the regulation, referendum, and we’re there to acquire it…!” Which MP can go and see his voters once more? Let's intention excessive. Dissolution, dispersal of Macron’s Celebration, resignations… The political disaster will be attributable to collective motion.
Arrange discussions between staff, maintain conferences of 1 or two hours in corporations, sit-ins, or dialogue initiatives in markets, in cinemas in medium-sized cities … Torchbearers retreats to conferences you for a buffet collectively, the hyperlinks and the reflections which multiply enable to plan a participation for subsequent huge dates: votes on the Meeting, and so on. The institutional calendar extends till March or June. And a really massive variety of folks, with out organizational membership in the mean time, can rework themselves into activists of "resistance" defining themselves their responses, their "widespread objectives".
And the political events, on this evaluation? In constructing the mobilization, in the event that they wish to emerge from their decline, allow them to take part within the animation of native assemblies like these desired by the Yellow Vests with the RIC! This is not going to be finished with out the required inside transformations … And for alliances that they’d make, open to all those that are within the motion, they must categorical themselves clearly on actually elementary commitments, clearly summarized .
Due to the Mitterrand administration of 1981 and its aftermath: political measures of justice and reparation to eradicate postcolonial stays are important. Legal guidelines requiring that girls's wages be equal to these of males. The cancellation of all reactionary measures, all of the injustices legalized for the reason that final three presidents: towards the unemployed, towards the correct to work and the Labor Code, towards public providers, towards democratic freedoms … And the implementation of claims. We can’t let it go as if the unhealthy issues of the previous had been legalized: therefore the seek for allies who’re dedicated to preventing neoliberal insurance policies.
Reorganization of establishments … Within the present disaster of confidence, an evaluation of the state equipment and of the coaching of "ruling elites" should be mentioned and acknowledged. As "the entire group of the Republic tends (…) to deprive the lots of the means able to making them purchase data of enterprise and the observe of freedom", a "democratic revolution" is important (Ferrat, 1945: 225- 255) (12). All of the preparation of legal guidelines, with the data mentioned, ought to they steer clear of the widest discussions? Can we belief the state when, by being content material with the present parliamentary guidelines, deputies are extra typically hostage to biased questions? Why not impose, for realism as a way to keep away from being trapped within the meshes of lobbies, that everlasting technical advisory councils elected from specialists and provisional technical advisory committees, with attracts linked to assemblies and native actions , be appointed to check a query? And to have a coverage that provides time for democracy, earlier than any election, dialogue and suppression of a part of the powers of the President for the good thing about a majority within the Meeting controlling Prime Minister, authorities and state providers …
Opening the controversy on altering establishments … Might this motion go that far? I used to be instructed it might be optimistic. However why accept what the members of this authorities might "negotiate"? Why not see that the cry "Macron resignation" has a robust which means: it means allow us to drive out the ruling class and set up democratic guidelines. (Article despatched by the writer; it seems within the journal Worlds of Work, dated February 6, 2020, on-line and in paper format https://lesmondesdutravail.net/)
Pierre Cours-Salies, sociologist, was a professor on the College of Paris eight Saint-Denis.
(1) Dominique Seux “ Retreats, reflux step by step ", The echoes, Jan 16
(2) Laurent Berger is Common Secretary of the CFDT.
(three) Lukacs, Georg, (1969), Interviews with Georg Lukacs, with Wolfgang Abendroth, Hans Holz, Leo Kofler, Théo Pinkus, Paris, Ed. François Maspero.
(four) Delevoye, Jean-Paul, was born on January 22, 1947 in Bapaume, in Pas-de-Calais. He research on the Jesuit highschool La Windfall (en), in Amiens. Common Councilor RPR of Pas-de-Calais, elected within the canton of Bapaume (1980-2001) Mayor of Bapaume (1982-2002 and 2004-2014) Member of the Pas-de-Calais (1986-1988). President of the Affiliation of Mayors of France (1992-2002); Minister of Public Service, State Reform and Regional Planning (2002-2004).
(5) Member of the European Parliament and chief of the EELV social gathering
(6) Macron, Emmanuel (2017), Revolution, Paris, XO
(7) Maillard, Denis (2019), A French Anger, Paris, ed. The Observatory.
(eight) Mediapart, December 30, 2019.
(9) J-M Blanquer is Minister of Nationwide Schooling.
(11) The CGT, Solidaires and the FSU have the identical calls for for the correct to wages, work and coaching; in addition to the discount of working time with out lack of wages and with hires, 32h to 30h.
(12) Such reflections already appeared in a e-book by a former PCF chief, André Ferrat, in regards to the foure Republic (1945), The Republic to rebuild, Paris, Gallimard
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