They’re all three economists, all from completely different backgrounds, and their conclusions are remaining: pension reform because it seems as we speak doesn’t have their blessing. Removed from it. Uplifting extracts.
Licensed pension specialists, Philippe Askenazy, director of analysis on the CNRS, Hervé Boulhol, pension supervisor within the social coverage division of the OECD, and Antoine Bozio, labor economist, director of the Institute for Public Coverage, IPP, and promoted "greatest younger economist" in 2017, have been heard on March four by the Senate Social Affairs Committee who wished "clear and exact solutions" to a challenge "to which no person understands something" and subject to 49.3.
In the event that they deem it essential to reform our pension system, they haven’t mince phrases both on the shape or the substance of the reform, already tackled by the Council of State : "Producing inequality between civil servants", "dupe market", "authentic suspicion", "feeling of insecurity" …
Unlucky lack of consensus
Thought of one of many fathers of the reform instituting a universal points scheme, Antoine Bozio now not finds his younger there. "I by no means thought that my evaluation needs to be adopted to the letter," he mentioned within the preamble to the Senate committee.
Nonetheless, the federal government's introduction of a parametric reform has created discrepancies between its proposals and the doc submitted to parliamentarians for vote. "If these variations have been in step with the bulk decisions of the nation and union representatives, I’m OK. I wished a high quality democratic debate, he continues. I used to be improper to hope that our nation has the capability to speak to one another and to work for consensus… ”
Among the many causes of the shortage of membership, Philippe Askenazy denounces the influence research revealed: “They don’t correspond to actuality: youngsters, particularly, aren’t taken under consideration. This generates a sense of authentic insecurity. "
Pivotal age: "However why?" "
“In a common factors system, the place charges are calculated constantly and in euros, there is no such thing as a want for a pivotal age, insists Antoine Bozio. Establish a pivotal age gives the look that we wish to come again to the programs put in place to individualize the beginning age. When you begin working earlier, retiring earlier will not be outrageous, ”he concludes.
"An invisible system to decrease pensions"
In December, the federal government appeared to provide in by pushing again and spreading the applying of the reform till 2050. At that date, the indexation of pensions will likely be primarily based on modifications in wages or "common revenue per head ”to be outlined.
Within the meantime, the present system will stay the rule. However why ? "France indexes pensions on value traits, recollects Antoine Bozio. It’s a very efficient and invisible system for decreasing pensions, a way more highly effective mechanism for balancing the accounts than all the opposite measures, notably modifying the retirement age. And the extra we preserve this method, the extra we discreetly make huge financial savings… ”
Unknown remaining price
The three economists are onerous pressed to reply the senators' query: "How a lot will this reform price ultimately?" "It’s a blind spot of the reform," sweeps Hervé Boulhol. "Within the reform it’s mentioned that public spending will drop from 13.eight factors of GDP to 12.9, a lower of zero.9 factors," mentioned the director of the PPI. However this determine doesn’t embody the extra bills linked to the corrective measures, particularly the rise in lecturers' remuneration. ”
In keeping with some figures, this single improve would price 10 billion euros per 12 months … "We might have preferred to see the web price of the reform," he slips.
New inequalities between civil servants
In France, the State pays 75% of social safety contributions on the salaries of its brokers, in comparison with round 10% in Germany. Then again, he solely pays 5% on premiums. "The selection is shortly made when it’s obligatory to extend the remuneration within the public service", analyzes Antoine Bozio. That is how these bonuses symbolize for some 1 / 4 of the wage. Nonetheless, "now we have not solved this downside, and those that have few bonuses will likely be penalized in comparison with those that have many," regrets the director of the PPI. As a result of these premiums will lastly be taken under consideration sooner or later calculation of pensions.
For Philippe Askenazy, there can even be the issue of the distinction in internet wages between folks born, for instance, on December 31, 1974 and people born on January 2, 1975, as a result of social safety contributions are "75% as we speak for the employer who 'is the state, will improve to 28% on January 1, 1975 ".
And so as to add, "The state can even increase teachers' salaries in order that they don’t lose out, however the brokers of native authorities who work within the colleges will hold the identical wage, resulting in a sense of inequality. That is going to pose an issue of attractiveness of the trades of the native communities ”, predicts the analysis director at CNRS.
Considerations concerning the worth of the purpose
How a lot will the merchandise price? How will it’s calculated? And the way will the worth of the purpose evolve? "We’d like clear guidelines from the beginning," insists Hervé Boulhol, of the OECD, who regrets a "lack of transparency" and "not clear guidelines".
In keeping with him, for instance, "the price of the purpose and the worth of the purpose should comply with the identical index". And to evoke the case of Agirc-Arrco, "The place the revaluation mode ( Editor's notice: determined by the social companions) is essentially discretionary ”.