"Solely work ensures independence" Ahmadou KOUROUMA, "The suns of independence", 1968, Version du Seuil, Paris.
"Citizenship is without doubt one of the situations obligatory for our growth" mentioned Habib Bourguiba, the primary President of Tunisia.
I-THE "WORK" VALUE.
- A traditionally "hardworking" individuals.
Who doesn’t know one of many following adages: "after the rain, it’s the dew", or "we reap what now we have sown" or "after the trouble, it’s the reward"?
Work is a vital, even existential, "worth" in lots of human societies. Except for uncommon tribes or ethnic teams, who lived on raids, "working and incomes a dwelling by the sweat of 1's forehead" is without doubt one of the universally shared human qualities.
Mali is an impressive nation, a rustic as soon as of labor. It’s exactly due to their arduous work that our ancestors made Mali an impressive nation with a wonderful historical past made up of empires and kingdoms. From Kayes to Kidal, every neighborhood, every ethnic group is pleased with the previous of its ancestors, of its lovely historical past.
Earlier than the "monetization" of the economic system, the system of change or circulation of products and companies between populations was barter: work was inevitable. You needed to work to "barter" your manufacturing, your manufacturing for that of one other particular person.
"The tax (NI SONKON) was paid in cowries or in sort" in accordance with oral custom. It’s the fruit of the work of all of the populations very organized in a really lovely distribution of the trades and the duties, which made perform the kingdoms and the empires.
It’s as a result of they have been moral males, of top quality, arduous employees that they have been capable of shine on their occasions, obtain and construct what makes our delight at present. By means of illustration, the "Canal de TIO" or "Canal de Babougou N'Tji", constructed over 300 (300) years in the past by one of many kings of Ségou, within the Workplace du Niger, continues to feed the daughters and sons of our nation.
The very dedicated reggae artist, pan-Africanist Alpha Blondy paid tribute to the work by devoting an attractive tune to it which explains effectively why our ancestors have been so relentless for work: "working is simply too arduous, stealing is just not good, begging for charity is one thing I can not do. ”
Certainly our ancestors have been ashamed of begging, of the "FADEN TO" assistantship. And it’s on this sense that they educate us and we can not blame them.
I had already written it in a publication which appeared in "Echos hebdo N ° 1437 of January 06, 2017, in an article" Struggle towards corruption: a battle to be gained ". In Malian societies, work was thought-about the "first high quality" of an individual in his neighborhood. The work was "a faculty". Younger adolescents needed to help mother and father to study the commerce effectively: breeder, cultivator, fisherman, dioula, blacksmiths. Younger teenage women have been desirous to study home tasks, getting ready for his or her future roles as wives and moms. We had a love of labor. We grew up with the conviction that solely work makes an individual price.
In his e-book "Vocabulaire juridique", printed in June 2005, PUF Paris, 7th version, Gérard Cornu defines the work as follows:
"Handbook or mental human exercise, exercised with a decided helpful consequence. In widespread parlance, merges with the notion , productive exercise, of social utility and meant to offer a person with the revenue obligatory for his subsistence. In a extra restricted sense, is commonly used to designate a salaried exercise ".
"From Latin, tripaliare, to work is to torture with the makeshift instrument mentioned tripalium ". Certainly, whether or not guide, bodily or mental, the work is tough, very painful and the arduousness, for sure kinds of actions, is just not removed from torture. Within the recitation "the plowman and his kids", by Jean de La Fontaine, the daddy, to encourage his kids, is just not mistaken in saying: "Work, take ache", emphasizing the arduous work.
Thus in a retirement system at 65, an individual who finishes his research at 25 and works for 40 years on the fee of eight hours a day, would have been "tortured" for 116,800 hours in 40 years life.
It’s the identical for our moms within the kitchen, employees within the factories, on the backside of the mines, mechanics, craftsmen, artists, drivers and different truckers, workers in resorts, and so on.
It’s straightforward to grasp why sure populations, tribes, as an alternative of working, favor to make use of themselves within the fruits of the work of others, the wealth created by others, by the use of conflicts, raids, battle.
However it’s more and more established that as a lot as our ancestors magnified work to construct the empires we delight ourselves on, we are likely to wish to take pleasure in life with out working.
- The present remark: the lack of the "style" of labor.
Immediately, the remark is only and easily bitter. In Mali, now we have misplaced the style for work. To be satisfied, spend a month observing Malians at work within the fields, on building websites and workers in private and non-private workplaces and hold the next statistics:
- What number of employees arrive on time on the office on time?
- What number of come residence earlier than the tip of the day?
- What number of Administrators and workers have a tv within the workplace? Women and gents, the mind is just not programmed to do a number of issues on the identical time, every factor in its time: both we work, or we distract ourselves.
- How a lot is 40 hours of labor per week appropriately?
- Tasks ? Take note of blocking charges and progress,
- How a lot time is spent connecting to social networks?
- What number of conferences does the Entity maintain, together with workers who take part in conferences outdoors the construction? There isn’t a doubt that conferences are additionally areas for communication and administration contributing to the efficiency of Entities: that executives meet to unblock a scenario in an hour, this is essential, generally even inevitable for the achievement of aims , however completely limitless conferences? There could also be an undiscovered illness that might be referred to as "reunion" in Mali.
- The place do they reside? Don’t attempt to discover out the dwelling quarters and the furnishings that equips the homes, in order to not get dizzy.
Throughout this month of remark, take note of the Entity's car parking zone whereas observing the workers's comings and goings. You’ll solely see final technology vehicles of all manufacturers. How is it attainable that individuals who work so little, are so rich?
Don't be stunned. It's quite simple, we’re proving to the world that work is ineffective, we will be wealthy with out working. And we put together our kids for that. Already at school and college, they’ve every part with out having labored: bikes, vehicles, homes, and so on. This explains the 2 contradictory conditions with very disastrous penalties that the nation is experiencing: the lack of style for work and the rising habit to cash.
First consequence, by shedding the style and the love of labor, we’re on the way in which to shedding the primary battle within the combat towards begging, prostitution in all its kinds together with childish, poverty, medication on the bottom, in a phrase, underdevelopment,
Second consequence, by shedding the style for work, we’re on the way in which to shedding our independence, this freedom that the fathers of independence dearly acquired for us. Immediately in Africa, we’re asking for NGO assistantships. We brandish our poverty justifying our standing as worldwide beggars to profit from donations, subsidies and different budgetary assist.
Third consequence, the limitless habit to cash and materials items led us into indescribable corruption, a veritable "weapon of mass destruction". Certainly :
- as a consequence of corruption, there is a rise within the costs of merchandise offered 2 to three occasions the conventional value, together with these of primary necessity and medicines, making them inaccessible for a big majority of populations. Poverty is gaining floor daily,
- as a consequence of corruption, which partly explains the neglect of our well being constructions, the well being system has turn into a “commodity” offered to essentially the most solvent prospects, with a sure monetary capability, additionally leaving an awesome majority of the populations in margin of primary well being care,
- as a consequence of corruption, the training system is now not capable of practice high quality human assets, actual residents. Worse, it’s extra meant to create the wealthy of at present relatively than to assume and put together the way forward for the nation,
- due to corruption, our justice system doesn’t sufficiently shield the rights of unusual individuals. Justice is now not rendered "pretty", that’s to say that the identical legal guidelines are utilized otherwise relying on whether or not the defendant is wealthy or poor.
- due to corruption, our protection and safety system could be very cracked, inflicting, partially, fanciful recruitments, of comfort, making one of many largest armies on the continent, feared and dissuasive, into a military in situation dilapidated, poorly geared up, poorly fashioned and poorly organized on the nationwide territory of 1,240,000 km2,
- as a consequence of corruption, this "metastasized most cancers", which feeds all ills together with impunity, the well-known consensus, actual state lie, management of the nation is about to flee us, we’re about to lose our nation.
These are all the explanation why the combat towards corruption is a battle that have to be gained. It could not be gained in speeches, within the multiplication of management constructions however in sturdy actions such because the reimbursement of public funds subtracted by monetary offenders, the one strategy to deter all new predators.
Refunds wouldn’t be confused with common authorities income. They might, for instance, be housed in a "particular income account" meant to finance infrastructure of common curiosity: roads, training, universities, well being, agricultural growth, vitality, and so on., offered for within the ministries’ funding budgets.
1.three Makes an attempt at explanations: how did we go from a traditionally hard-working individuals to a "individuals of enjoyment"?
Sociologists and historians have an obligation to edify populations in televised, radio broadcast debates and publications. With the attention of a layman, we attempt to search for explanations in lots of elements together with:
First, the slave commerce and colonization: it’s tough to seek out explanations for the ills plaguing the continent, for its disagreeable financial and social scenario, with out alluding to slavery and colonization. It’s well-known that Western nations, particularly in Europe and North America, have been constructed at the price of the blood of thousands and thousands of blacks enslaved and thousands and thousands of Africans compelled into compelled labor by the colonizing nations. The nice socio-anthropological intellectuals, historians, researchers similar to Cheikh Anta DIOP, Jean Philipe OMOTUNDE, Théophile OBENGA, Emmanuel KABONGO MALU, DOUMBI Fakoly, Elikia MBOKOLO, Achille Mbembé, and so on. We study in varied publications, books, televised debates, video conferences, that the black is definitely the race which suffered essentially the most on the planet.
We perceive implicitly that the destruction of the cultural material by psychological bludgeoning, would partly clarify the inferiority advanced from which even many blacks endure at present. The inferiority advanced reached such a degree that in 2019 once more, greater than 200 years after the abolition of slavery and the tip of colonization, our girls out of the blue purchase tons of of 1000’s of francs, the hair of Indian, Brazilian girls useless to put on this on their heads. How terrible ? Added to the depigmentation, some seem like zombies.
They need to learn "Lettre à la France nègre", 2003, Version Bussière Camedan Imprimerie, Paris, Prix Renaudot, through which the creator Yambo OUOLOGUEM our compatriot addresses in all "13 letters to all the nice and unhealthy consciences of France and Africa going through the black downside ”.
Among the many aftermath of slavery and colonization, the cultural and psychological facet is definitely the toughest to restore. The restoration of self-confidence can final for hundreds of years.
The breakup of African communitarianism, the delivery of individualism, the habit to cash and materials items would discover explanations within the results of colonization with the introduction of cash in its present kind.
Fashions of life are imposed on us and we search to stay pretty much as good as it’s to those life. Nonetheless, slavery and colonization don’t clarify every part. Different nations, notably Asian, similar to India, South Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam and Pakistan have been additionally colonized.
Second, the misunderstanding of the idea of "Youngsters's rights", an enormous mistake that our nations didn’t see coming. Ship a toddler to steer the animals within the bush or drive the oxen to plow, hunt the grain-eating birds that devastate the crops, study to fish, study to forge, put together the ladies for the work of the long run spouse, and so on. is taken into account degrading for a kid, inhuman, torturing, opposite to "kids's rights", an imposed lifestyle. Our insurance policies defend this, even competing to be the primary nation of the “Youngsters's Proper”. We don’t perceive that we’re destroying a superb a part of the financial material, by shedding legitimate arms.
One of many penalties of that is the agricultural exodus. Our nations have been left with younger individuals with none on the arms, realizing nothing to do. So they arrive to swell the cities. However to do what ?
Small jobs, intermediation, generally referred to as "coceurs", with the appearance of democracy, we’re witnessing the delivery of the occupation of "politician". The worst failure is organized crime.
Third, the political energy construction: Because of colonization, African nations misplaced the construction of their political energy earlier than the slave commerce and colonization. It’s changed by that imposed by the previous colonizing energy. Democracy calls for standards that we don’t meet, specifically the maturity of peoples to demand visionary applications for candidates. The consequence is that in Africa now we have extra Presidents having fun with energy than employees.
No offense to those that assault the age of the French President. This "younger President" is hardworking. He’s fulfilling all of his electoral guarantees. He loves his nation, protects his individuals and fights for his or her happiness, even when it means passing over the pursuits of the previous colonies. "The worth doesn’t have the variety of years", we are saying. He spreads the picture of his nation on the planet, not like our leaders, whose habits doesn’t honor the picture of their nation and the continent.
Allow us to not rejoice within the "populist speeches on the left" which appear to assist Africans in a lot of their struggles. In energy, it might be worse, since it’s the nationwide curiosity that instructions in the mean time. We applauded the election of the primary black American President, Barack OBAMA Jr. Past the image, each can draw up, in accordance with the data which he has, his steadiness sheet for Africa.
It’s as much as us to work as an alternative of searching for the pity of others. "If the lion has pity on its prey, it’s he who will starve to demise," it’s mentioned.
In Africa, we’re led by previous Presidents who’re nearer to their graves, however extra pleasing than a 25-year-old. Occasion to the conquest of energy with out actual applications that they may translate into "Improvement Plans", in energy with an Meeting unable to rectify the fires by the vote of growth price range, they don’t seem to be saved any promise. So what can we count on? Outcomes ?
Fourth, the impact of faith: Because of the psychological alienation brought on by the slave commerce and colonization, faith has turn into a occupation in Africa. Spiritual leaders, in lots of instances, are inactive, however they’re richer than enterprise leaders and pay no taxes. So, in sure localities of sure African nations, there are as many, if no more spiritual colleges than fashionable colleges. What’s going to they do as soon as the spiritual certificates is of their pocket?
In a household of 05 kids of which just one works, "God would have given all of the luck of others to this one". So he has to handle everybody. Then we get married as a result of we’re previous and never as a result of now we have the means to satisfy the wants of the household. And the kids who’re born educate them, elevate them with out means? No worries, "It’s God who provides delivery and HE has offered meals for each mouth he has created".
The underside line is that in Africa, and extra notably in Mali, there may be not sufficient work. A hardworking, rigorous boss is even referred to as unhealthy and vilified all around the nation by his workers.
There isn’t a doubt that solely "work ensures independence" has already advised us the Ivorian author Ahmadou KOUROUMA, the creator of "Suns of Independence".
We are able to safely say that the degrees of growth achieved by nations are a perform of individuals's labor, their affection and respect for work, the creation of wealth, every part that explains the progress and growth in all areas.
The love for work doesn’t come from ex-nihilo, it’s the entire society which prepares the particular person for exemplarity, for "love for work".
II-THE VALUES "CIVISM AND CITIZENSHIP".
2.1. Demonstrations of citizenship
On the American passport, we will perceive some filigree inscriptions like: "Deal with this particular person, he’s an American citizen, America protects him from wherever he’s".
Additionally, are you aware why, for instance the demise, below sure situations, of a German, English, Canadian, French, European, Japanese, and so on., makes too many noises and due to this fact scares the leaders?
In all these nations, the particular person appropriately fulfills his “citizen duties” by paying his taxes and collaborating within the selection of the leaders elected by enlightened votes. In return, the state actually performs an obligation of safety and kindness to its residents.
In these nations, paying tax is the primary obligation of the citizen. There isn’t a strategy to escape it, as a result of of the distinctive identifier. Every particular person has one and just one quantity that identifies them in all places. With the digitization of digital fingerprint, residents are by no means once more recognized and adopted in all their actions. The appropriately up to date civil standing register makes it attainable to know births, deaths and the theoretical inhabitants of the nation, at any time. So the non-filing of tax declarations is shortly identified. The dishonest is is managed, the life kinds of the residents being identified with a sure precision: variety of journeys, the cadastre and the GPS make it attainable to know all of the house owners of homes.
Tax can be the value of this safety, this peace of thoughts. The tax burden is excessive, reaching in some nations 75% of the citizen's revenue. In return, the citizen calls for the standard of life, tranquility.
In Africa, citizenship poses critical issues. On the one hand, the populations assume that they don’t have any duties, however that rights. In Mali, individuals are reluctant to pay their taxes, particularly direct taxes. So how do you fiscal growth? By begging from rich nations for donations, subsidies and different aids, the brand new chain of slavery for future generations?
Then, from a purely social justice viewpoint, do you assume it’s regular for the State to make use of the taxes paid by different residents to come back to the help of a citizen entangled in issues, for instance in Angola and who doesn't pay taxes?
Some individuals more and more justify, rightly or wrongly, fiscal incivism by the alleged "embezzlement" of leaders. Once we take a look at the life-style of State Representatives: buildings, homes, automobiles, well being care overseas, kids in universities overseas, and so on., can we actually say they’re improper? Particularly since in our nation, we not often register “complaints for wrongly accusing embezzlement”. As well as, the residents help, helplessly, on the sale of "nationwide heritage" items by leaders with no clear use of the proceeds of the sale being communicated to them via their consultant: the Nationwide Meeting.
Lastly, the Administrators are criticized for not having sufficient will to place in place a worthy cadastre of this title for 30 years (for the reason that CARPOL Venture) and a novel identifier, NINA, since 2009, nearly 10 years. The vagueness would settle the governors greater than the ruled and the directors greater than the administered.
For his or her half, the leaders accuse the populations of not paying tax. Some statistics would even give the speed of solely 47% of Malians who pay taxes. In our opinion, this fee would solely concern direct taxes, since oblique VAT taxes, taxes on monetary actions, particular taxes on telecommunications and customs duties included within the sale value of imported merchandise are paid by all residents as end-consumer prospects.
We consider that within the citizenship match between populations and leaders, the ball is within the courtroom of leaders in any respect ranges. They went to marketing campaign, to make guarantees to the individuals to get elected. They need to recruit "high quality individuals" who will reveal the nice use they make of public cash coming from taxes paid by industrial, industrial, banking, insurance coverage corporations, and particularly by the residents who’re the most important contributors. of VAT. From the remark of the DGI statistics, VAT alone contributes on common round 55% of common price range income.
Within the debates on fiscal insurance policies, between teachers and politicians the arguments are increasingly more in favor of a discount in direct taxation (tax on wages, earnings, dividends, rents, and so on.), and robust oblique taxation: VAT and different taxes on turnover.
Certainly, a discount in direct taxation would result in an enchancment within the buying energy of residents, and in financial savings, which in flip would generate elevated productive funding, which might increase financial actions for extra creation. jobs and added worth and much more VAT and turnover taxes.
2.2. The idea of citizen.
The Larousse defines the citizen as: "member of a State thought-about from the viewpoint of its duties and its civil and political rights". Thus outlined, every State and society, via exact guidelines of fine conduct, take part within the preparation of the kind of residents who may have the heavy duties and duties of conducting the affairs of the nation.
Malian societies are wealthy in glorious guidelines which put together the kid for his future roles in society and within the lifetime of the Nation, in a phrase to be good residents. We are able to cite amongst others amongst :
- values : justice, the primacy of the neighborhood and the collectivity, generosity and sharing, respect for the phrase given and the oath, loyalty and constancy, fact, politeness, respect as a result of elders, respect for girl, dignity and disgrace, honesty, honor and preservation of the household title for the entire neighborhood, respect for the property of others, respect for the neighborhood, work, kindness, braveness and bravado, acceptance of the opposite in his distinction, and so on.
- and the opposites of those values : injustice, the person, individualism and greed, ingratitude and betrayal, disloyalty and unfaithfulness, mendacity and dishonest, rudeness, unworthiness and shamelessness, dishonesty , dishonor, theft, use or use in neighborhood issues, laziness, wickedness, concern, rejection of others or intolerance, and so on.
Writings of the well-known mental Amadou Hampaté BA similar to: "The unusual future of the wangrin" authorized deposit 1979, version 2007, Editions 10/18, Paris, and "Amkoullel, the Peuhl youngster", printed by the editions I learn, 2005, Paris, are filled with many wisdoms and guidelines of conduct that put together the particular person for citizenship.
An individual educated in these virtues, was steeped in values, knew his origins, had a social ink that made it tough to deal with, was an actual citizen, couldn’t be a thief, a plunderer of public affairs. Nor might he dream of betraying, for a second, his neighborhood and the nation.
These values haven’t fully disappeared, they’re nonetheless alive, carried by one other sort of Malians, colonized, mentally and culturally alienated, highlighting a distinction between the content material and the container. We don't do what we are saying. It appears to prevail over the underside, we’re not actually what we’re.
The unrestrained seek for self-interest, the style for cash and materials items, sink a effectively educated particular person extremely certified, in corruption, the "embezzlement" of public affairs, mendacity, dishonest, l ingratitude, betrayal, in a phrase, all the alternative of virtues and make this particular person a worse citizen.
Elsewhere, below different skies, within the e-book "Les Conversations de Confucius", information of the orient assortment, printed in 1987 by Editions Gallimard, Paris, we study that Confi cuis is a part of "classical Asian humanities", a terrific Chinese language thinker, instructor of the ethics of ethics and good guidelines of conduct, who lived 300 years earlier than Jesus Christ.
In a superb e-book, titled "Little Treatise on Nice Virtues", printed in 1995, by PUF, Paris, the French Thinker, André Comte-Sponville, offers with eighteen virtues which put together kids for citizenship. These virtues are:
"Politeness, Loyalty, Warning, Temperance, Braveness, Justice, Generosity, Compassion, Mercy, Gratitude, Humility, Simplicity, Tolerance, Purity, Gentleness, Good Religion , Humor and love ”.
Within the abstract, it’s unequivocal: "It’s higher to show the virtues than to sentence the vices. Morality is just not there to make us really feel responsible, however to assist everybody to be their very own grasp, their solely choose. What function ? To turn into extra human, stronger, sweeter. "
Many virtues are acquired via household training and from society as an entire. In Mali, greater than elsewhere, the kid belonged to the neighborhood.
One of many roles of the state is to assist constructing citizenship via civic and ethical training: "The self-discipline taught in main and secondary colleges designed to arrange college students for his or her roles as residents". LAROUSSE. Political events also needs to be deeply concerned within the civic building of the citizens.
Thus ready for his roles within the nation, the citizen is ready to correctly fulfill his duties and rights within the regular functioning of the state. The participation of populations in masking public expenditure via the fee of taxes, duties and taxes and the non-diversion of public affairs are main manifestations of citizenship.
In conclusion of this paper, it’s important that we stock out sustained reflection to shortly discover options to the disaster that’s slowly destroying our nation. Dans une publication parue respectivement dans « Mali Tribune » N°44 du 23 Août 2019 et dans les « Echos Hebdo », intitulé « Les risques courus par notre pays : l’autonomisation des régions, la partition et l’Azawad sans les Azawadiens », nous avions mis le doigt sur la dette colossale de « libération » que notre pays est entrain de contracter jour après jour.
Cinq mois après le Président TRUMP vient de nous donner raison. Le cas de l’Irak doit nous inspirer. Le Parlement Irakien vote le départ de toutes les forces étrangères le lundi 06 Janvier 2019, le Mardi 07, le Président Américain kind la facture de la « libération du peuple Irakien du dictateur Saddam Hussein » pour leur dire en filigrane : nous pourrions partir, mais payez d’abord notre facture. A combien s’élève-t- elle ? Certainement des milliers de milliards de dollars.
Les souffrances du Noir, décrit par nos éminents intellectuels sont loin d’être finies. Le chemin de la maturité est encre très lengthy pour les peuples africains. Leurs grands-parents ont réduit nos grands-parents en esclaves, en colonisés, eux sont entrain de nous malmenés à souhait, et sûrement c’est dur à entendre, mais leurs générations futures risquent de réduire nos générations futures en esclaves. Fuir l’Afrique pour migrer chez eux ne mettra personne à l’abri de cet esclavage.
Pour le Mali, qui nous concerne directement, tant que le sous-sol de notre pays regorgerait d’importantes ressources, Tant que notre pays n’aurait pas de imaginative and prescient économique claire qui permettra de mettre en place les politiques et les moyens d’exploiter les supposées immenses ressources. Tant que les grandes puissances auraient besoin de matières premières pour faire tourner leurs usines, Tant que des ethnies, des cadres avides d’argent et des perdants politiques seraient manipulables, notre pays ne retrouverait jamais la stabilité et la paix tant recherchées. Les velléités identitaires et indépendantistes seront toujours utilisées en permanence comme arme pour nous mettre dos-à-dos.
On pourrait manifester, marcher tous les jours, exprimer notre colère, insulter la France politique, demander le départ des forces étrangères, cela ne suffirait pas. Nous avons eu le braveness de les appeler au secours, ayons le braveness de négocier les situations de remboursement de notre « dette de libération » pour mettre fin aux calvaires et souffrances de nos populations d’aujourd’hui et celles des générations futures./ (à suivre)..
Professional-ComptableEnseignant de Comptabilité de funds et d’Audit